Triangular Cooperation: Change or Continuity?

Triangular Cooperation: Change or Continuity?

The development cooperation system is currently under pressure to change and demonstrate its usefulness for addressing more complex development challenges. Triangular Cooperation constitutes a modality of cooperation that can contribute to this change, opening space to more inclusive formulas of partnership. However, such results are neither guaranteed nor automatic, as TC can also contribute to reinforcing vertical relationships that characterize traditional aid. It is therefore important to identify the factors that contribute to tipping this balance in one direction or another. This article aims to investigate these aspects, offering an analytical framework by which to identify the main elements that contribute to giving TC its transformative role. The analysis suggests that this result depends on the relationships established among the actors involved, which are conditioned not only by structural factors associated with the countries’ diverse conditions (economic, technological, geostrategic position) but also by other ideational and strategic factors.



Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development in SIDS - Advancing the SAMOA Pathway and Achieving Sustainable Recovery

Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development in SIDS - Advancing the SAMOA Pathway and Achieving Sustainable Recovery

This publication attests to the innovative ways different models of international cooperation can support SIDS to overcome shared challenges and accelerate progress towards sustainable development, including recovery from COVID-19. This publication showcases some effective South-South and triangular practices and innovative development solutions, in areas such as climate change, sustainable energy, sustainable transport and disaster risk reduction. Although at their innovative stages, many of these emerging practices will benefit from continued practice and adoption, as they are scaled-up in different island countries. But it is the ability to create these home-grown and South-South solutions that must be protected and encouraged. The extent to which these efforts catalyse transformational change will depend in part on how enabling the environment is at the local, regional, and global levels.


Leveraging triangular partnerships to respond to COVID-19 and build back better from the pandemic.

Leveraging triangular partnerships to respond to COVID-19 and build back better from the pandemic.

The challenges posed by COVID-19 are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. In 2020, the global community suffered a severe setback in the progress made towards reaching the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Millions of people lost their incomes, and the SDGs financing gap, already significant before the pandemic, may increase by 70%. The challenges related to COVID-19 are numerous, the resources available to both developed and developing countries are stressed, and financing for sustainable development is on edge. 


V Regional Conference "Perspectives of Triangular Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean"

V Regional Conference "Perspectives of Triangular Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean"

Publication only available in Spanish


Lessons learned from Triangular Cooperation between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean

Lessons learned from Triangular Cooperation between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean

SYSTEMATISATION OF THE ADELANTE PROGRAMME • 2016-2020 The purpose of this document is to compile and analyse the lessons learned from ADELANTE, the European Union’s flagship programme for Triangular Cooperation with Latin America and the Caribbean. The experiences gathered in it are the result of the implementation of eight projects co-financed by the programme during the period 2016 to 2020. These projects have been characterised by addressing different thematic areas, taking place in several countries and with a wide variety of actors, building on different forms of collaboration among one another and with different action strategies. However, ADELANTE has touched on many other important areas of work these past four years: the added value of Triangular Cooperation as a development modality, the contribution to the 2030 Agenda, knowledge management, strategic relationships and an active role in Triangular Cooperation, communication and visibility.


The Value Added of Triangular Co-operation - Lessons learned from the EU-LAC Programme for Triangular Co-operation (ADELANTE)

The Value Added of Triangular Co-operation - Lessons learned from the EU-LAC Programme for Triangular Co-operation (ADELANTE)

This paper is the result of a joint pilot exercise of the “Toolkit for identifying, monitoring and evaluating the value added of triangular co-operation” among the EU-LAC Facility for Triangular Co-operation (ADELANTE) and the OECD. The eight projects of the ADELANTE Facility worked with the questionnaire of the evaluation tool to assess the value added of working in a trilateral partnership. The EU team and the projects agreed that the six areas identified as potential value added of triangular co-operation are valid for ADELANTE. The joint pilot exercise was insightful and inspiring for all of the partners involved as an instrument for mutual learning. The recommendations arising from this joint exercise will contribute to the design of future EU triangular co-operation initiatives, aiming to make good use of the value added of the modality and addressing the challenges in a constructive, forward-looking way.


Report of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Ibero-America 2020

Report of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Ibero-America 2020

More than 1,000 initiatives stand out, in the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, dedicated to capacity strengthening in key areas to face the crisis, such as health, emergency management, support for vulnerable populations, ICTs, entrepreneurship, among others.

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A decade of South-South Cooperation in Ibero-America

A decade of South-South Cooperation in Ibero-America

A decade in the voice of the protagonists of South-South Cooperation in Ibero-America. A commemorative publication of the collaborative work between SEGIB and Ibero-American countries to systematize and analyze South-South Cooperation since 2007, reflected in the first ten editions of the Report on South-South Cooperation in Ibero-America.


Assessment Framework for National Ecosystem for South-South and Triangular Cooperation

Assessment Framework for National Ecosystem for South-South and Triangular Cooperation

This assessment framework document was developed by the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) based on its concept on National Ecosystems for South-South and Triangular Cooperation. The document was authored by Riad Ragueb, Ahmed Faruk Diken, Abdelhakim Yessouf, Abdul Majid Khan, Aminuddin Matt Ariff, Faquaruddin Mehmood, Moncef Soudani, and Sameh Hussein of the Reverse Linkage Section of the Islamic Development Bank.


Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development - Vol. 3

Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development - Vol. 3

This publication was made possible through the collaborative efforts of the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) and partners from Member States, UN entities, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and other development partners. It contains 195 good practices in South-South and triangular cooperation grouped according to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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Trilateral Cooperation in German Development Cooperation

Trilateral Cooperation in German Development Cooperation

In development cooperation, trilateral cooperation (TrC) is increasingly seen as having potential not only to achieve impacts in the beneficiary countries, but also to contribute to improved cooperation relationships and partnerships on the strategic level – especially between DAC donors and emerging countries. This evaluation of TrC in German development cooperation examines the extent to which the objectives and expectations of the stakeholders are being achieved. Alongside an analysis of the German TrC portfolio and the relevant literature, extensive case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa serve as the data base.


Spanish Triangular Cooperation with Latin America

Spanish Triangular Cooperation with Latin America

Publication only available in Spanish.


2030 Agenda, Ibero-America and Triangular Cooperation: a partnership for development

2030 Agenda, Ibero-America and Triangular Cooperation: a partnership for development

Publication only available in Spanish.


Reality of aid 2019: from the lost decade to the 2030 Agenda

Reality of aid 2019: from the lost decade to the 2030 Agenda

Publication only available in Spanish


Report on South-South Cooperation in Ibero-America 2019

Report on South-South Cooperation in Ibero-America 2019

The Report on South-South Cooperation in Ibero-America 2019 is the most comprehensive intergovernmental systematization of South-South Cooperation in a developing region.

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Triangular Co-operation in the era of the 2030 Agenda - Sharing evidence and stories from the field

Triangular Co-operation in the era of the 2030 Agenda - Sharing evidence and stories from the field

The Second High-Level United Nations Conference on South-South Co-operation (BAPA +40) is a great opportunity to provide more visibility for the different, and often innovative, trilateral partnerships around the globe. To do so, the Global Partnership Initiative (GPI) on Effective Triangular Co-operation has embarked on a journey of collecting case stories, operational tools, experiences and lessons learned from its members. The result is this report which provides inputs specific to triangular co-operation1 into the overall theme of BAPA +40 “The Role of South-South Co-operation and the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities” as well as its four sub-themes, which will be elaborated in the following.


Toolkit for identifying, monitoring and evaluating the value added of Triangular Co-operation

Toolkit for identifying, monitoring and evaluating the value added of Triangular Co-operation

The idea for this toolkit was born out of the experiences that many practitioners face in having to justify working in a triangular co-operation arrangement rather than through bilateral or regional co-operation activities. Participants at an international meeting on triangular co-operation in Lisbon in 2016 stressed that while practitioners commonly discuss the value added of triangular co-operation, it is rarely captured in analyses and assessments, such as evaluations.

South-South and Triangular Cooperation in the Health sector in Ibero-America

South-South and Triangular Cooperation in the Health sector in Ibero-America

Publication only available in Spanish


Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development – Vol. 2

Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development – Vol. 2

The importance of South-South and triangular cooperation in accelerating sustainable development has gained continued momentum over the last decades. There is growing consensus around sharing ideas, knowledge and skills to address common challenges and build shared strengths. Developing countries are increasingly recognizing good practices in South-South and triangular cooperation as viable pathways to accelerate progress in the attainment of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The new surge in South-South and triangular cooperation has also seen countries in the South increasingly championing solutions that address common transnational development challenges which would be difficult to tackle independently.


Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development – Vol. 1

Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development – Vol. 1

Good practices to accelerate sustainable human development are increasingly available in the global South. They can be found in the policies, institutions and programmes that have enabled a number of developing countries to acquire a skilled labour force, create decent jobs, raise productivity and lift millions of their citizens out of grinding poverty. Beyond the countries acting individually, there is a notable surge in international collective actions known as South-South and triangular cooperation. The development community recognizes these approaches as viable pathways to progress in the developing world. In such initiatives, developing countries turn to one another and their Northern partners to address challenges through cooperative alliances and peer-to-peer learning, leading to the widespread application of policies, strategies or practical programmes that have worked to raise living standards in the South.


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