Publications about Triangular Cooperation

COLLECTIONS SPECIALIZED ON TRIANGULAR COOPERATION

›› Good Practices in SSTrC Series - UNOSSC

›› Summary of discussions of the International Meeting on Triangular Cooperation - OECD and Camões

   • 7th Meeting - (2023)

   • 6th Meeting - (2022)

   • 5th Meeting - (2019)

   • 4th Meeting - (2018)

   • 3rd Meeting - (2016)

   • 2nd Meeting - (2013)

   • 1st Meeting - (2012)

›› Spotlight Series - GPI

›› Reports on South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Ibero-America - SEGIB
(About Triangular Cooperation: Report 2015, 2020 and following)

›› Specialized studies on Triangular Cooperation - SEGIB

›› Working Documents Series - PIFCSS
(About Triangular Cooperation: documents 8, 15, 17, 18, 20 and following)

›› Momentos ADELANTE - ADELANTE


PUBLICATIONS ABOUT TRIANGULAR COOPERATION

Publications 2024

Chile as a triangular partner for development cooperation

Chile as a triangular partner for development cooperation

Publication only available in Spanish


Publications 2023

World Food Programme South-South and Triangular Cooperation Policy Update (2023)

World Food Programme South-South and Triangular Cooperation Policy Update (2023)

The South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC) policy update, approved by the Executive Board in July 2023, represents a significant leap forward in WFP’s commitment to supporting and empowering the Global South countries in sharing, adapting and implementing zero hunger solutions to strengthen their national systems, focusing on the most vulnerable people.


Implementing BAPA+40 through Triangular Co-operation- Case story: ADELANTE 2 - the EU Triangular Co-operation  Programme with Latin America and the Caribbean

Implementing BAPA+40 through Triangular Co-operation- Case story: ADELANTE 2 - the EU Triangular Co-operation Programme with Latin America and the Caribbean

The European Union (EU) is a leading facilitating partner for triangular cooperation (TrC). The first technical cooperation initiatives that resemble triangular co-operation models and tactics date back to the late 1990s. The EU has reported its TrC initiatives to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since 2017 (2016 data). The EU institutions disbursed the largest volume of TrC funding between 2016-2020, amounting to USD 131 million, followed by Germany and Canada (OECD, 2022).


New South-South and triangular industrial cooperation impact stories

New South-South and triangular industrial cooperation impact stories

During the occasion of the 21st session of the High-level Committee on South-South Cooperation, a subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly, the UNIDO delegation presented it's newly published 11 impact stories about South-South and Triangular Industrial Cooperation (SSTIC) to the UN Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC). The publications highlight just some of the 145 current UNIDO projects embracing the SSTIC approach.

These stories shed light on specific UNIDO initiatives, illustrating the effective implementation of SSTIC at the heart of their design. In doing so, they provide incentives to Member States and other stakeholders to replicate successful initiatives.

South-South and triangular industrial cooperation (SSTIC) is a process whereby two or more developing countries pursue their individual and/or shared national capacity development objectives through exchanges of knowledge, skills, resources and technical know-how, and through regional and interregional collective action.

Cooperation, development and political value. Triangular Cooperation between the European Union and Latin America.

Cooperation, development and political value. Triangular Cooperation between the European Union and Latin America.

Publication only available in Spanish


Handbook on Integrating South-South and Triangular Cooperation in the Voluntary National Reviews

Handbook on Integrating South-South and Triangular Cooperation in the Voluntary National Reviews

South-South and triangular cooperation are a valuable catalyst in galvanizing political will and in enhancing knowhow to implement the much needed economic and social reforms to rescue the SDGs. Recognizing this, countries are increasingly integrating South-South and triangular cooperation in the preparation and presentation of their voluntary national reviews (VNRs).

The integration of South-South and triangular cooperation perspectives in the VNRs helps in tracking progress in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda more comprehensively and inclusively, and generating valuable evidence of South- South and triangular cooperation contributions toward achieving the SDGs.

The Co-Chairs of the Group of Friends of VNRs and the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) are committed to supporting developing countries in integrating South-South and triangular cooperation perspectives into the preparation and presentation of their VNRs. With this handbook, the Co-Chairs of the Group of Friends of VNRs and UNOSSC are jointly responding to the 2022 High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development Ministerial Declaration and the latest intergovernmental resolutions on South-South cooperation. The handbook provides step-by- step guidance, drawing from good practices, and examples, on integrating South-South and triangular cooperation in the preparation and presentation of VNRs. It was developed in close collaboration with Member States, UN Entities and relevant stakeholders. The handbook also complements the existing proposal of the Secretary-General for voluntary common reporting guidelines for VNRs at the High-Level Political Forum, the UN DESA Handbook for the Preparation of VNRs, and other VNR resource packages.

2022 Global South-South Development Expo Report

2022 Global South-South Development Expo Report

Launched in 2008, the Global South-South Development (GSSD) Expo is a global event organized by UNOSSC, in collaboration with Member States, United Nations agencies, private sector enterprises, civil society organizations and academic institutions. It is the only worldwide multi-stakeholder platform offered by the United Nations for systematic showcasing of development solutions at national, regional and global levels – as a direct response to the expressed interest and needs of stakeholders from the global South. It enables all development actors and stakeholders to showcase and scale up southern development solutions, celebrate South-South and triangular cooperation successes, share knowledge and lessons learned, and explore new avenues for collaboration, while contributing to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


Momento ADELANTE #3: The potential of Triangular Cooperation for civil society organisations and local authorities.

Momento ADELANTE #3: The potential of Triangular Cooperation for civil society organisations and local authorities.

Rapporteur's report of the third Momento ADELANTE, led together with the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation - AECID.


Report: 6th Regional Conference on Triangular Cooperation (2022): (Re)thinking partnerships

Report: 6th Regional Conference on Triangular Cooperation (2022): (Re)thinking partnerships

The rapidly changing circumstances and practices of international cooperation are currently facing further challenges against the backdrop of the impact caused by the covid-19 pandemic and the Russian war in Ukraine. Interconnected global crises require a rethinking of partnerships and innovative solutions. Inclusive and comprehensive learning processes need to be promoted through an intensive exchange of experiences and dialogue between various perspectives using different tools. As an integral part of the development architecture, triangular cooperation (trc) is a flexible tool for creating and scaling up international partnerships by fostering dialogues between multiple actors from several sectors and regions in the world. trc brings together North-South and South-South cooperation and fills the gap between Official Development Assistance (oda) and South-South Cooperation (ssc). By working together to achieve the global Sustainable Development Goals (sdgs), strengthening partnerships in the sense of sdg 17, and addressing social, economic, and environmental challenges inclusively, trc is a powerful and effective tool contributing to the 2030 Agenda.


Guidelines for the Integration of South-South and Triangular Cooperation into the Country- and Regional-level Work of the United Nations Development System

Guidelines for the Integration of South-South and Triangular Cooperation into the Country- and Regional-level Work of the United Nations Development System

Building on the broad recommendations, catalytic actions and performance indicators identified in the 2016 framework of operational guidelines on UN support to South-South and triangular cooperation (SSC/19/3)5 and consultations with UN entities and other partners, these Guidelines offer a step-by-step resource to use when integrating South-South and triangular cooperation into the CCA and UNSDCF processes. This includes improved analysis, capacity assessment, stakeholder engagement and programming tools.


Triangular Cooperation  with the Arab Region: Policies, Perspectives and Practices of DAC Members

Triangular Cooperation with the Arab Region: Policies, Perspectives and Practices of DAC Members

Complex, intractable, and persistent development challenges worldwide disproportionately affect the lives of millions in the South. It has become increasingly evident that despite political will and national ownership, developing countries can not tackle these challenges independently. Among other factors, they require resources and know-how provided through revamped knowledge-partnerships that transcend boundaries.

The COVID-19 pandemic response demonstrated how countries, through international solidarity and coordinated action, can generate transformative change at a scale and speed previously unimaginable. It also highlighted the necessity for context-specific development approaches and broader partnerships to assist governments and national institutions in finding the best-fitting solutions for their local needs.

In this context, triangular cooperation is gaining recognition as an essential modality in the evolving development cooperation architecture, complementing South-South cooperation.

As articulated in the Outcome Document of the second High-Level United Nations Conference on South-South Cooperation in 2019 (BAPA+40), triangular cooperation “provides added value by leveraging and mobilizing additional technical and financial resources, sharing a broader range of experiences, promoting new areas of cooperation, and combining affordable and context-based development solutions under flexible arrangements and agreed shared modalities.” The document also urged Member States to “increase the use” of this modality under the leadership of the beneficiary country. However, due to the diversity of approaches, interpretations, policy frameworks, as well as institutional and part- nership arrangements, the BAPA+40 Outcome Document acknowledged “the need to better understand triangular cooperation and provide more evidence and rigorous information on its scale, scope, and impact.”


Experiences and Practices on Inclusive Sustainable Tourism in Cities and Localities in the Context of South-South and Triangular Cooperation

Experiences and Practices on Inclusive Sustainable Tourism in Cities and Localities in the Context of South-South and Triangular Cooperation

This pioneering work sheds light on an increasingly important aspect of our modern, interconnected world – inclusive sustainable tourism. The nexus of culture, economics, and sustainable development is more pertinent than ever, particularly for the cities and localities that can benefit from South-South and Triangular cooperation.

This knowledge product serves as an exploration, a voyage, into the rich tapestry of experiences and practices that various local partners across the global South have employed in their quest for sustainable tourism. It describes how both large and small cities and localities from different regions have navigated the intricate path of preserving their unique cultural heritage, boosting their local economy, and safeguarding their natural environment, all while ensuring inclusivity in their practices. This knowledge product highlights how they have turned the challenge of sustainability into an opportunity for reinventing their identities and amplifying their appeal to international travellers.


Global Perspectives on Triangular Co-operation

Global Perspectives on Triangular Co-operation

The world is marked by multiple crises and challenges that transcend borders and require not only local but global solutions. Only by working together and bridging divides and differences can countries address these challenges and drive a sustainable development future for all. This report by the OECD and the Islamic Development Bank demonstrates triangular co-operation’s relevance for delivering progress on sustainable development. In particular, it stresses its innovative approach to diplomacy, and its ability to bring together different stakeholders from across the global south and north in trusting partnerships that leverage the expertise, knowledge and resources of all partners. The report also examines the current global trends in the use of triangular co-operation, explores how to strengthen national ecosystems to support its effective delivery, and highlights how triangular co-operation can contribute to addressing climate change and biodiversity loss, with a specific focus on small island developing states.


Report on South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Ibero-America 2022 and Main Messages

Report on South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Ibero-America 2022 and Main Messages

Publication only available in Spanish


Evaluation of 10 TCr projects Regional Fund for Triangular Cooperation with partners from Latin America and the Caribbean - GIZ

Evaluation of 10 TCr projects Regional Fund for Triangular Cooperation with partners from Latin America and the Caribbean - GIZ

Publication only available in Spanish


Publications 2022

Report on the performance of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Colombia 2022

Report on the performance of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Colombia 2022

Publication only available in Spanish.


Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development – Vol. 4

Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development – Vol. 4

Unprecedented challenges have arisen in the first years of the Decade of Action for the delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030: the Covid-19 pandemic, climate crises and war in the Ukraine are among other hardships threatening progress. In these crucial times, South-South and triangular cooperation can be fundamental for ensuring we continue to move ahead in recovering losses and furthering the global commitment of leaving no one behind.

At the core of South-South and triangular cooperation is the understanding that exchanging knowledge, skills, experiences and lessons learned between and among countries of the global South serves as a powerful catalyst for development. These exchanges complement and may even improve traditional North-South cooperation and are a fundamental tool for inclusive global partnerships towards sustainable development.

Fulfilling its mandate and the commitments expressed in the BAPA+40 Outcome Document, the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation works to record, systematize and facilitate access to development knowledge from and for the global South. The Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development publication series is the culmination of that mission and documents the incredible work that is currently happening in the global South.

ADELANTE's good practice is described in page 270.

›› View the complete collection


Ex-post evaluations of Triangular Cooperation: results and lessons for the future

Ex-post evaluations of Triangular Cooperation: results and lessons for the future

Publication only available in Spanish.


Momento ADELANTE #2: The potential of  Triangular Cooperation for the European Union countries

Momento ADELANTE #2: The potential of Triangular Cooperation for the European Union countries

Rapporteur's report of the first Momento ADELANTE, led together with the Ibero-American General Secretariat - SEGIB.

Brazil and FAO – The Path to Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

Brazil and FAO – The Path to Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

Brazil has a long history of public policies to eradicate hunger, reduce poverty, promote research and innovation in agriculture and strengthen the institutional framework for rural and urban development. The Brazil-FAO International Cooperation Programme has been one of the most successful initiatives in this regard, allowing the exchange of experiences, the improvement of public policies, and technical and financial support to promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Partnerships for policy transfer: how Brazil and China engage in triangular cooperation with the United Nations

Partnerships for policy transfer: how Brazil and China engage in triangular cooperation with the United Nations

This paper offers a comparative analysis of Brazilian and Chinese partnerships with the United Nations (UN) as a mechanism and channel for policy transfer. In international policy travel flows, China and Brazil currently hold privileged places as hubs from which development-related policies travel and through which they circulate. Both countries have invested in systematising their development experience and transferring development policies within their regions and beyond – often through triangular cooperation, i.e. South–South cooperation supported by third actors such as UN entities. So far, however, this variegated engagement has remained under the radar of scholarly attention. To address this gap, we examine 35 policy transfer partnerships – 17 for Brazil and 18 for China – forged with different parts of the UN system over the last two decades. In order to offer a first systematic account of partnership trajectories, we provide an overview of partnership types (namely projects, programmes and policy centres) and transfer dimensions (including the policies themselves, transfer agents and governance arrangements).


Triangular co-operation with Africa

Triangular co-operation with Africa

Triangular co-operation is on the rise in Africa. At the time of finalising this paper (February 2022), one third of the 921 triangular co-operation projects in the OECD online triangular co-operation project repository involve countries on the African continent, in comparison to 21% in 2016 (OECD, 2017[1]). African countries participate widely in triangular partnerships with the Asia-Pacific region, Europe and the Americas – both as beneficiaries and pivotal partners sharing their experiences and innovations. These partnerships are unique because they enable intra-Africa exchanges, as more countries are building ecosystems to engage in South-South and triangular co-operation.


Triangular Cooperation  in German development cooperation

Triangular Cooperation in German development cooperation

From Germany's point of view, it is vital that each partner make substantial contributions to the thematic aspects of the cooperation effort and that the facilitating role not be limited to the mere financing of South-South cooperation. Germany views its role in triangular cooperation as that of a learning partner, too, and wants to further strengthen that aspect in the future. There are several federal government ministries in Germany that want to benefit from exchange and mutual learning in this field.

Strengthening National Home-Grown School Feeding Programmes through South-South and Triangular Cooperation

Strengthening National Home-Grown School Feeding Programmes through South-South and Triangular Cooperation

With their shared mandate of ensuring food security for all people, the United Nations Rome-based Agencies (RBAs) – the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP) – have joined forces to support one of the most impactful evidence-based interventions to positively transform global food systems: national Home-Grown School Feeding (HGSF) programmes.

In line with the UN Food Systems Summit outcome and the Global School Meals Coalition, the RBAs will work together to strengthen country capacities to design and implement national HGSF programmes by facilitating South-South and triangular cooperation (SSTC). These efforts build on a long-standing collaboration in SSTC between the RBAs which was consolidated in the Joint RBA Roadmap Towards BAPA+40. By leveraging each agency’s comparative advantage, RBA-facilitated SSTC can play a pivotal role in enabling countries of the Global South to share their knowledge and experience to strengthen national food systems to reach the most vulnerable individuals and groups.


2021–2022 Overview of WFP’s Initiatives on South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC)

2021–2022 Overview of WFP’s Initiatives on South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC)

The 2021–2022 Overview of WFP’s initiatives on South-South Cooperation presents an outline of WFP’s work as a broker and facilitator of knowledge exchanges.

WFP’s flagship publication in SSTC presents a glimpse of WFP’s global work as a South-South broker to support countries in the achievement of SDG 2 on Zero Hunger.

Across the countries where WFP operates, 345 million people are currently estimated to be acutely food insecure or at high risk given this unprecedented global food crisis. SSTC is one of the key avenues to bring more partners from the Global South on board to support the leap forward toward the achievement of the ambitious goals set in the 2030 Agenda.

In response to rising country demands, WFP has been stepping up its efforts to support countries tap into SSTC in 2021 and 2022, as consolidated in the overview. In 2021, WFP has been recognized among the United Nations entities that have made the most progress towards mainstreaming SSTC, reaching 1.11 million people and mobilizing US$2.7 million for SSTC field projects.


India-UN Development Partnership Fund Year-in-Review Report 2022

India-UN Development Partnership Fund Year-in-Review Report 2022

The year 2022 marks the fifth anniversary of the India-UN Partnership Development Fund, a landmark moment to reflect on how the vision for South-South collaboration ingrained in the ambition and design of the Fund gained reach across the Global South and became transformational for partnering countries and communities.

The Fund not only made progress in achieving its bold agenda, meaningfully contributing to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals by and in support of developing countries, but it also rose to the occasion in the face of new and intensifying challenges: a pandemic lasting over two years; the enormous socioeconomic aftermath of lockdowns and supply-chain disruptions; a rapidly worsening climate crisis; and increased frequency of extreme weather events resulting in much devastation.


Report on the performance of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Colombia 2022

Report on the performance of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Colombia 2022

Publication only available in Spanish


Publications 2021

Mainstreaming South-South and Triangular Cooperation Work in Progress at the United Nations

Mainstreaming South-South and Triangular Cooperation Work in Progress at the United Nations

South-South cooperation – usually understood as referring to collaboration among developing countries – has become an increasingly visible part of international development processes. Together with the expansion of Triangular Cooperation – that is, South-South efforts supported by a traditional donor or a multilateral organisation – the growing clout of South-South schemes reflects shifts in the global distribution of power and wealth. Against this backdrop, United Nations (UN) entities have repeatedly been asked to mainstream their support for South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC), but there is hardly any systematic comparative evidence on whether and how they have done so, and what the broader SSTC support landscape looks like across the UN. 

South-South (SSC) and Triangular Cooperation and its alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A METHODOLOGY

South-South (SSC) and Triangular Cooperation and its alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A METHODOLOGY

Publication only available in Spanish.

Triangular Cooperation: Change or Continuity?

Triangular Cooperation: Change or Continuity?

The development cooperation system is currently under pressure to change and demonstrate its usefulness for addressing more complex development challenges. Triangular Cooperation constitutes a modality of cooperation that can contribute to this change, opening space to more inclusive formulas of partnership. However, such results are neither guaranteed nor automatic, as TC can also contribute to reinforcing vertical relationships that characterize traditional aid. It is therefore important to identify the factors that contribute to tipping this balance in one direction or another. This article aims to investigate these aspects, offering an analytical framework by which to identify the main elements that contribute to giving TC its transformative role. The analysis suggests that this result depends on the relationships established among the actors involved, which are conditioned not only by structural factors associated with the countries’ diverse conditions (economic, technological, geostrategic position) but also by other ideational and strategic factors.


South-South and Triangular Cooperation in a Digital World – New Impetus and New Approaches (Volume II, 2021)

South-South and Triangular Cooperation in a Digital World – New Impetus and New Approaches (Volume II, 2021)

This Report is authored by Dr. Hany Besada, Senior Research and Programme Advisor & Senior Research Coordinator, United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC); Dr. Xiaolin Wang, Professor and Deputy Dean, Institute for Six-Sector Economy, Fudan University and Dr. Qianqian Liu, Deputy Director General, Finance Centre for South-South Cooperation.

On 19 March 2019, the South-South Cooperation in the Digital World Conference was held in Argentina alongside the Second High-level United Nations Conference on South-South Cooperation and the 40th Anniversary of the Buenos Aires Plan of Action (BAPA+40). The 2018 South-South Cooperation report South-South Cooperation in a Digital World, jointly prepared by the Finance Center for South-South Cooperation (FCSSC) and the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC), was released at the conference. Thereafter, numerous partners initiated various initiatives to help advance this agenda. Therefore, FCSSC and UNOSSC continued to focus on the topic, and to dig even deeper, and chose South- South and Triangular Cooperation in a Digital World: New Impetus and New Approaches as the theme for our 2020/2021 report.


South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Financing Decent Work: A Peer-Learning Guide

South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Financing Decent Work: A Peer-Learning Guide

Several countries, especially emerging economies and developing countries, share similar socio-economic conditions and face the same type of challenges related to sustainable socioeconomic development. Different countries often face common hazards and similar vulnerabilities. The diversity of development experiences and initiatives allows us to draw lessons, identify successful practices and assess their potential for replication. South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC) is a partnership between equals that involves a process of learning or sharing knowledge from effective development initiatives that have been implemented in countries of the Global South. As reflected in the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, SSTC has become a key modality of international development cooperation and an essential instrument for the United Nations Development System. SSTC, by promoting networking, the exchange of successful experiences and technical knowledge among countries, plays a crucial role in achieving the mission of the ILO: decent work for all! 


Momento ADELANTE #1: Challenges, role and potential of Triangular Cooperation in the fight against the effects of COVID-19

Momento ADELANTE #1: Challenges, role and potential of Triangular Cooperation in the fight against the effects of COVID-19

Rapporteur's report of the first Momento ADELANTE, led together with the Regional Fund for Triangular Cooperation with Latin American and Caribbean Partners of the German Cooperation Agency - GIZ.

Chile and Triangular Cooperation, 2021

Chile and Triangular Cooperation, 2021

Publication only available in Spanish.


Evaluation of the WFP South-South and Triangular Cooperation Policy

Evaluation of the WFP South-South and Triangular Cooperation Policy

The WFP policy on South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC) issued in 2015, has been evaluated in the sixth year of implementation, in line with the WFP Evaluation Policy 2016-2021.

The evaluation assessed the relevance, effectiveness, coherence and sustainability of the Policy and its implementation from 2015 to 2020. The WFP Strategic Plan (2014-2017) highlighted the role of SSTC as a tool to strengthen local capacity especially in relation to social safety nets and school feeding.  The Policy provides a brief overview of SSTC in the WFP programme of work at the time of policy development and describes several examples of WFP-supported South-South cooperation, including the work of the Centre of Excellence in Brazil.

The evaluation findings are largely positive with regard to the quality of the SSTC policy, the results of its implementation and WFP's management of internal and external factors influencing support for SSTC during the review period of 2015‒2020.


Leveraging triangular partnerships to respond to COVID-19 and build back better from the pandemic.

Leveraging triangular partnerships to respond to COVID-19 and build back better from the pandemic.

The challenges posed by COVID-19 are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. In 2020, the global community suffered a severe setback in the progress made towards reaching the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Millions of people lost their incomes, and the SDGs financing gap, already significant before the pandemic, may increase by 70%. The challenges related to COVID-19 are numerous, the resources available to both developed and developing countries are stressed, and financing for sustainable development is on edge. 


Covid-19 response and recovery: public policy leadership and institutional arrangements. 2021 inter-regional dialogue and stocktaking for advancing South-South and triangular cooperation in the Arab states, Europe and the CIS: Summary report.

Covid-19 response and recovery: public policy leadership and institutional arrangements. 2021 inter-regional dialogue and stocktaking for advancing South-South and triangular cooperation in the Arab states, Europe and the CIS: Summary report.

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, an integrated and coordinated international response has increasingly gained its necessity in confronting this crisis at country, regional and global levels, as well as in overcoming the challenges facing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The 2021 UN World Economic Situation and Prospects report underscored that sustained recovery from the pandemic will depend not only on the size of the stimulus measures, and the quick roll-out of vaccines, but also on the quality of these measures to build resilience against future shocks. Appropriate policy and institutional reforms, including human resources capacities, will undoubtedly accelerate the mobilisation of resources and encourage international and regional partners to finance development efforts.


South-South Cooperation and Triangular Cooperation to strengthen multilateralism.

South-South Cooperation and Triangular Cooperation to strengthen multilateralism.

The ideal of cooperation among developing countries was born in the 1950s as an attempt to establish new patterns of collaboration which addressed the limitations of a world order influenced by imperialism and colonialism, and caught up on the dynamic of the Cold War. However, some developing countries like, India and China had initiated their efforts in development cooperation well before, in the late 1940s, through provision of opportunities in training and knowledge sharing. The 1955 Afro-Asian Bandung Conference became a landmark event, in which major developing countries committed to the principles of the charter of the United Nations, and called for an international order in which the interests and rights of developing countries were to be fully considered.


Publications 2020

Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development - Vol. 3

Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development - Vol. 3

This publication was made possible through the collaborative efforts of the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) and partners from Member States, UN entities, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and other development partners. It contains 195 good practices in South-South and triangular cooperation grouped according to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
ADELANTE's good practices are described in pages 337 and 339.

›› View the complete collection


Equitable partnerships through Triangular Co-operation: experiences from Canadian Civil Society

Equitable partnerships through Triangular Co-operation: experiences from Canadian Civil Society

New forms of co-operation are emerging as the global community works towards the realization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this context, triangular co-operation is increasing as governments and non-state actors pursue North-South-South partnerships to realize sustainable development outcomes. While triangular co-operation was traditionally the remit of governments, recent efforts have opened space for a more contemporary understanding that includes all development actors, such as civil society organizations (CSOs), the private sector and regional organizations. In this context, government and non-state actors work as facilitators of North-South-South co-operation, where pivotal partners provide technical expertise and capacity in delivering on sustainable development outcomes in beneficiary countries.


Sharing responsibility: jeopardised multilateralism and the growing centrality of Triangular Cooperation

Sharing responsibility: jeopardised multilateralism and the growing centrality of Triangular Cooperation

Multipolarity is casting doubt on the notion of responsibility, and diffused reciprocity of the multilateral system of international development cooperation is falling short. In midst of this crisis, what are possible mechanisms to foster the implementation of the 2030 Agenda? I argue that Triangular Cooperation, through specific reciprocity, presents opportunity for nurturing partnerships and enhancing models to share responsibilities toward international development cooperation. Looking into recent trends of TrC, I argue that through this modality, DAC countries push for greater involvement of the South, and Southern providers share responsibility towards international development.

Dialogue 7: The role of South-South and triangular co- operation in contexts beyond ODA

Dialogue 7: The role of South-South and triangular co- operation in contexts beyond ODA

Cooperation beyond ODA overcomes traditional role concepts in development politics. The conventional ascriptions of the North providing and the South re-ceiving assistance are being contested and increasingly replaced by new modalities that enable countries to engage with each other on a more equal footing. The Second UN High-level Conference on South-South Cooperation (BAPA+40), held in March 2019 in Buenos Aires, empowered the Global South and consolidated South-South cooperation as a key element of the 2030 Agenda. At the same time, Triangular Cooperation between northern and southern countries is gaining momentum and starting to trigger ministries and implementing agencies to rethink the role of former donors in a setting beyond ODA. With our discussants we debate the current prospects and challenges for South-South and triangular cooperation and set them in relation to ODA graduation. Are these modes suitable alternatives for graduating countries, especially regarding their demand for technical cooperation and knowledge ex-change? How can South-South and triangular cooperation be further promoted, more recognised and improved?


Report: V Regional Conference "Perspectives of Triangular Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean"

Report: V Regional Conference "Perspectives of Triangular Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean"

Publication only available in Spanish


Triangular Cooperation: broader, more dynamic and flexible

Triangular Cooperation: broader, more dynamic and flexible

Triangular Cooperation has existed as a cooperation mechanism for about 40 years. The first implicit reference was made to it in 1978 in the United Nations Plan of Action for Promoting and Implementing Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries, the Buenos Aires Plan of Action (BAPA). Reacting to the increased complexity of international development cooperation, and going beyond the North–South divide, TriCo aims to (i) foster relations between DAC donors and emerging economies, (ii) strengthen southern providers’ capacity in international cooperation for development and (iii) promote international development. Since 1978, TriCo has become broader, more dynamic and flexible, has increased the number of projects and stakeholders involved, and incorporated different processes and approaches (e.g. South–South–South cooperation), including larger partnership strategies. It is now perceived of as key to the sharing of costs, responsibilities and solutions in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Assessment Framework for National Ecosystem for South-South and Triangular Cooperation

Assessment Framework for National Ecosystem for South-South and Triangular Cooperation

This assessment framework document was developed by the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) based on its concept on National Ecosystems for South-South and Triangular Cooperation. The document was authored by Riad Ragueb, Ahmed Faruk Diken, Abdelhakim Yessouf, Abdul Majid Khan, Aminuddin Matt Ariff, Faquaruddin Mehmood, Moncef Soudani, and Sameh Hussein of the Reverse Linkage Section of the Islamic Development Bank.


Lessons learned from Mexico-Germany Triangular Cooperation projects benefiting Latin America and the Caribbean between 2011 and 2018

Lessons learned from Mexico-Germany Triangular Cooperation projects benefiting Latin America and the Caribbean between 2011 and 2018

Publication only available en Spanish

Lessons learned from Triangular Cooperation between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean

Lessons learned from Triangular Cooperation between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean

SYSTEMATISATION OF THE ADELANTE PROGRAMME • 2016-2020 The purpose of this document is to compile and analyse the lessons learned from ADELANTE, the European Union’s flagship programme for Triangular Cooperation with Latin America and the Caribbean. The experiences gathered in it are the result of the implementation of eight projects co-financed by the programme during the period 2016 to 2020. These projects have been characterised by addressing different thematic areas, taking place in several countries and with a wide variety of actors, building on different forms of collaboration among one another and with different action strategies. However, ADELANTE has touched on many other important areas of work these past four years: the added value of Triangular Cooperation as a development modality, the contribution to the 2030 Agenda, knowledge management, strategic relationships and an active role in Triangular Cooperation, communication and visibility.


Trilateral Cooperation in German Development Cooperation

Trilateral Cooperation in German Development Cooperation

In development cooperation, trilateral cooperation (TrC) is increasingly seen as having potential not only to achieve impacts in the beneficiary countries, but also to contribute to improved cooperation relationships and partnerships on the strategic level – especially between DAC donors and emerging countries. This evaluation of TrC in German development cooperation examines the extent to which the objectives and expectations of the stakeholders are being achieved. Alongside an analysis of the German TrC portfolio and the relevant literature, extensive case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa serve as the data base.


Policy paper on national strategies for South-South and Triangular Cooperation

Policy paper on national strategies for South-South and Triangular Cooperation

For developing countries to realize the full potential of SouthSouth and Triangular Cooperation (SSTrC) for achieving their national sustainable development objectives, it is important to formulate national SSTrC strategies as part of their national SSTrC ecosystems. Such national strategies would serve as guidance for a country’s SSTrC activities, initiatives and institutional framework, both as provider and beneficiary of SSTrC. This policy brief highlights the importance of developing national SSTrC strategies for achieving national development objectives and lays out the main elements that can be taken into consideration by developing countries for designing their national SSTrC strategies. While many developing countries do not have an explicit SSTrC strategy in place yet, the state of play shows that its elements can be found in various policies, institutional guidance and national development strategies. The absence of a holistic approach and a nationally acknowledged strategy carries the risk of fragmentation and incoherence in undertaking SSTrC activities. The potential of national SSTrC strategies for enabling effective responses to crises (such as COVID-19) is also explored.


The Value Added of Triangular Co-operation - Lessons learned from the EU-LAC Programme for Triangular Co-operation (ADELANTE)

The Value Added of Triangular Co-operation - Lessons learned from the EU-LAC Programme for Triangular Co-operation (ADELANTE)

This paper is the result of a joint pilot exercise of the “Toolkit for identifying, monitoring and evaluating the value added of triangular co-operation” among the EU-LAC Facility for Triangular Co-operation (ADELANTE) and the OECD. The eight projects of the ADELANTE Facility worked with the questionnaire of the evaluation tool to assess the value added of working in a trilateral partnership. The EU team and the projects agreed that the six areas identified as potential value added of triangular co-operation are valid for ADELANTE. The joint pilot exercise was insightful and inspiring for all of the partners involved as an instrument for mutual learning. The recommendations arising from this joint exercise will contribute to the design of future EU triangular co-operation initiatives, aiming to make good use of the value added of the modality and addressing the challenges in a constructive, forward-looking way.


Spanish Triangular Cooperation with Latin America

Spanish Triangular Cooperation with Latin America

Publication only available in Spanish.


United Nations system-wide strategy on South-South and Triangular Cooperation for sustainable development, 2020–2024

United Nations system-wide strategy on South-South and Triangular Cooperation for sustainable development, 2020–2024

The Outcome Document of the Second High-level United Nations Conference on South-South Cooperation reaffirmed the key role of United Nations system entities in leveraging South-South and triangular cooperation for sustainable development. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, such cooperation is playing a vital role in the global response and recovery. This first United Nations System-wide Strategy on South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development points the way toward even greater use of this invaluable vehicle. Developed through an inclusive inter-agency process, the Strategy aims to ensure more coordinated and coherent support to Member States in driving forward the 2030 Agenda and the Decade of Action to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals.


Report of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Ibero-America 2020

Report of South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Ibero-America 2020

More than 1,000 initiatives stand out, in the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, dedicated to capacity strengthening in key areas to face the crisis, such as health, emergency management, support for vulnerable populations, ICTs, entrepreneurship, among others.

›› View the complete collection


2030 Agenda, Ibero-America and Triangular Cooperation: a partnership for development

2030 Agenda, Ibero-America and Triangular Cooperation: a partnership for development

Publication only available in Spanish.


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